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Bojjhanga — The Seven Factors of Enlightenment 1

Homage to the Blessed One, the Worthy One, the Highest Self Enlightened One!

Pali Kanon

Published: 2015-01-09


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“Because they lead to enlightenment, therefore they are called factors of enlightenment” (S. XLVI, 5).

The 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga), are:

  1. Mindfulness (sati—sambojjhanga; s. sati)
  2. Investigation of the law (dhamma—vicaya—sambojjhanga)
  3. Energy (viriya—sambojjhanga; s. viriya, padhana)
  4. Rapture (piti—sambojjhanga, q.v.)
  5. Tranquility (passaddhi—sambojjhanga, q.v.)
  6. Concentration (samadhi—sambojjhanga, q.v.)
  7. Equanimity (upekkha)


“Bojjanga Piritha — බෝජ්ජංග පිරිත.” Click on the video to play it. View Full Video >>
Though in the 2nd factor, dhamma—vicaya, the word dhamma is taken by most translators to stand for the Buddhist doctrine, it probably refers to the bodily and mental phenomena (nama—rupa—dhamma) as presented to the investigating mind by mindfulness, the 1st factor. With that interpretation, the term may be rendered by ‘investigation of phenomena.’

In A.X.102, the 7 factors are said to be the means of attaining the threefold wisdom (s.tevijja).

They may be attained by means of the 4 foundations of mindfulness (satipatthana), as it is said in S.XLVI.1 and explained in M.118:

(1) “Whenever, o monks, the monk dwells contemplating the body (kaya), feeling (vedana), mind (citta) and mind—objects (dhamma), strenuous, clearly—conscious, mindful, after subduing worldly greed and grief, at such a time his mindfulness is present and undisturbed; and whenever his mindfulness is present and undisturbed, at such a time he has gained and is developing the factor of enlightenment ‘mindfulness’ (sati—sambojjhanga), and thus this factor of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.


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(2) “Whenever, while dwelling with mindfulness, he wisely investigates, examines and thinks over the law ... at such a time he has gained and is developing the factor of enlightenment ‘investigation of the law’ (dhamma—vicaya)...

(3) “Whenever, while wisely investigating his energy is firm and unshaken ... at such a time he has gained and is developing the factor of enlightenment ‘energy’ (viriya)...

(4) “Whenever in him, while firm in energy, arises super sensuous rapture ... at such a time he has gained and is developing the factor of enlightenment ‘rapture’ (piti)...

(5) “Whenever, while enraptured in mind, his body and his mind become composed ... at such a time he has gained and is developing the factor of enlightenment ‘tranquillity’ (passaddhi)...

(6) “Whenever, while being composed in his body and happy, his mind becomes concentrated ... at such a time he has gained and is developing the factor of enlightenment ‘concentration’ (samadhi)...


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(7) “Whenever he looks with complete indifference on his mind thus concentrated ... at such a time he has gained and is developing the factor of enlightenment ‘equanimity’ (upekkha).

Literature:

Bojjhanga Samyutta (S. XLVI); Bojjhanga Vibh. —

For the conditions leading to the arising of each of the factors, see the Com. to Satipatthana Sutta (Way of Mindfulness, by Soma Thera; 3rd ed., 1967, BPS).

The “Seven Factors of Enlightenment,” by Piyadassi Thera (WHEEL 1.)

May all be happy and well!

From: http://www.palikanon.com/english/wtb/b_f/bojjhanga.htm

See: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/#sn46

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